The vote prompted a standoff with the central government, which then took control of the region.
The crisis hurt many of Catalonia’s economic sectors in October, with car sales, job creation and hotel-stays all underperforming the rest of the country.
Almost 3,000 companies have moved their legal headquarters from the region since the vote.
Spanish retail sales fell 0.1% in October from a year earlier, after increasing by a revised 1.6% in September, the National Statistics Institute said.
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